Retributive justice or retributionism is a theory of justice – and more specifically a theory of punishment – that holds that proportional retribution is a morally acceptable response to the offense or crime, regardless of whether or not this measure … Read More
Money in various forms, from bartering to modern financial tools, has been an important institution for organized societies from the earliest times. History provides examples with many alternatives of the role of money that offer insights on today’s economic issues. … Read More
In space and time, the intensity of intercultural communication and interlinguistic exchanges depends largely on the quantity and quality of information translated from one language into another, but history has shown that the circulation and “notoriety” of ideas are not … Read More
The post Role of translation and languages in the circulation of ideas and information appeared first on SetThings (Telework).
Marc Bloch made the following criticism in The Historian’s Craft: ”It would still be annoying to see historians encumbering their observations with foreign expressions like those authors of rustic novels who, by their use of provincialisms, slip into a jargon … Read More
Intelligence services are currently focusing on the fight against terrorism, leaving relatively little resources to monitor other security threats. For this reason, they often ignore external information activities that do not pose immediate threats to their government’s interests. Extremely few external services operate globally. Almost all other services focus on immediate neighbors or regions. These services usually depend on relationships with these global services for information on areas beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and often sell their regional expertise for what they need globally. A feature of both internal and external services is that they behave like a caste.
On December 10 2020, Barbara Rawlings of Dorset, UK celebrated her 106th birthday. Congratulating her on national radio, the BBC’s Graham Norton remarked: “It does seem a little cruel that you’ve stayed alive for 106 years…. For this.” We all … Read More
London, south-east of Britain, is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Long time the capital of the British Empire, it is henceforth the political center and the seat of the Commonwealth.
Founded almost 2000 years ago by the Romans under the name Londinium, London in the nineteenth century was the most populous city in the world. Now widely exceeded by many megacities, it remains a city of the first rank, because of its reach and its considerable economic power, mainly due to its status as the first global financial center.
About the analogy between the epistemological and methodological aspects of the activity of intelligence agencies and some scientific disciplines, advocating for a more scientific approach to the process of collecting and analyzing information within the intelligence cycle. I assert that the theoretical, ontological and epistemological aspects of the activity of many intelligence agencies are underestimated, leading to incomplete understanding of current phenomena and confusion in inter-institutional collaboration. After a brief Introduction, which includes a history of the evolution of the intelligence concept after World War II, Intelligence Activity defines the objectives and organization of intelligence agencies, the core model of these organizations (the intelligence cycle), and the relevant aspects of the intelligence gathering and intelligence analysis. In the Ontology section, I highlight the ontological aspects and the entities that threaten and are threatened. The Epistemology section includes aspects specific to intelligence activity, with the analysis of the traditional (Singer) model, and a possible epistemological approach through the concept of tacit knowledge developed by scientist Michael Polanyi. In the Methodology section there are various methodological theories with an emphasis on structural analytical techniques, and some analogies with science, archeology, business and medicine. In Conclusions I argue on the possibility of a more scientific approach to methods of intelligence gathering and analysis of intelligence agencies.
2. Intelligence activity
2.2. Intelligence cycle
2.3 Intelligence gathering
2.4. Intelligence analysis
2.6. Epistemic communities
4.1. The tacit knowledge (Polanyi)
6. Analogies with other disciplines
MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/epistemology-of-intelligence-agencies/
The computer itself is the main source of information for the investigator. In the computer, information is stored on the hard disk. A hard disk drive is a device that can record magnetic data, consisting of one or more rigid discs, read / write heads and mechanical mechanisms protected by a metal casing, hermetically sealed. The storage capacity of a hard disk is normal nowadays thousands of gigabytes. A computer may have one or more hard disks of different types and capacities.