The Intelligence Community

Intelligence services are currently focusing on the fight against terrorism, leaving relatively little resources to monitor other security threats. For this reason, they often ignore external information activities that do not pose immediate threats to their government’s interests. Extremely few external services operate globally. Almost all other services focus on immediate neighbors or regions. These services usually depend on relationships with these global services for information on areas beyond their immediate neighborhoods, and often sell their regional expertise for what they need globally. A feature of both internal and external services is that they behave like a caste.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25847.68006

Nicolae_Sfetcu-The_Intelligence_Community

Geography of London

Geography of LondonLondon, south-east of Britain, is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Long time the capital of the British Empire, it is henceforth the political center and the seat of the Commonwealth.
Founded almost 2000 years ago by the Romans under the name Londinium, London in the nineteenth century was the most populous city in the world. Now widely exceeded by many megacities, it remains a city of the first rank, because of its reach and its considerable economic power, mainly due to its status as the first global financial center.

Geography of London

Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies

Epistemology of Intelligence AgenciesAbout the analogy between the epistemological and methodological aspects of the activity of intelligence agencies and some scientific disciplines, advocating for a more scientific approach to the process of collecting and analyzing information within the intelligence cycle. I assert that the theoretical, ontological and epistemological aspects of the activity of many intelligence agencies are underestimated, leading to incomplete understanding of current phenomena and confusion in inter-institutional collaboration. After a brief Introduction, which includes a history of the evolution of the intelligence concept after World War II, Intelligence Activity defines the objectives and organization of intelligence agencies, the core model of these organizations (the intelligence cycle), and the relevant aspects of the intelligence gathering and intelligence analysis. In the Ontology section, I highlight the ontological aspects and the entities that threaten and are threatened. The Epistemology section includes aspects specific to intelligence activity, with the analysis of the traditional (Singer) model, and a possible epistemological approach through the concept of tacit knowledge developed by scientist Michael Polanyi. In the Methodology section there are various methodological theories with an emphasis on structural analytical techniques, and some analogies with science, archeology, business and medicine. In Conclusions I argue on the possibility of a more scientific approach to methods of intelligence gathering and analysis of intelligence agencies.

CONTENTS:

Abstract
1 Introduction
1.1. History
2. Intelligence activity
2.1. Organizations
2.2. Intelligence cycle
2.3 Intelligence gathering
2.4. Intelligence analysis
2.5. Counterintelligence
2.6. Epistemic communities
3. Ontology
4. Epistemology
4.1. The tacit knowledge (Polanyi)
5. Methodologies
6. Analogies with other disciplines
6.1. Science
6.2. Archeology
6.3. Business
6.4. Medicine
7. Conclusions
Bibliography

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12971.49445

07.04.2019

MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/epistemology-of-intelligence-agencies/

Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies

Computing Devices

Computing DevicesThe computer itself is the main source of information for the investigator. In the computer, information is stored on the hard disk. A hard disk drive is a device that can record magnetic data, consisting of one or more rigid discs, read / write heads and mechanical mechanisms protected by a metal casing, hermetically sealed. The storage capacity of a hard disk is normal nowadays thousands of gigabytes. A computer may have one or more hard disks of different types and capacities.

Computing Devices

Bridge Game Overview

Contract bridge, usually known simply as bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard deck of 52 playing cards played by four players in two competing partnerships with partners sitting opposite each other around a small table. For purposes of scoring and reference, each player is identified by one of the points of the compass and thus North and South play against East and West. The game consists of several deals each progressing through four phases: dealing the cards, the auction (also referred to as bidding), playing the hand, and scoring the results. Dealing the cards and scoring the results are procedural activities while the auction and playing the hand are the two actively competitive phases of the game.

Nicolae_Sfetcu-Bridge_Game_Overview-C

An Epistemic Evolution of Intelligence

The perception of intelligence as power has intensified during the Second World War, when several intelligence agencies has been formalized and significantly increased. In all countries, new agencies and departments have been set up to deal with threats. Government publications in developed countries, following the September 11, 2001 attack, reflected a consensus that intelligence services are key to preventing mass attacks, spending huge amounts for the intelligence agencies that are considered a major component of national security systems.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16398.20809

An Epistemic Evolution of Intelligence

London: Business, Travel, Culture

London: Business, Travel, CultureLondon, the only city to have hosted the Olympics three times (1908, 1948, 2012), is dynamic and very diverse culturally. It plays an important role in art and fashion. It receives 28 million tourists per year and has four sites in World heritage and numerous iconic landmarks: the Palace of Westminster, Tower Bridge, Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, and renowned institutions like the British Museum or the National Gallery.

CONTENTS:

London
– Geography
– – Definition of London
– – Relief and hydrography
– – Districts
– – Urbanization
– – Climate
– History
– – London in Roman times
– – The Anglo-Saxon occupation
– – Medieval London
– – The modern times
– – The contemporary era
– Policy and Administration
– – Local administration
– – Postcodes in London
– – National administration
– – Twinning
– Demography
– – Population
– – Demographic evolution
– – Ethnic diversity
– – Residents born abroad
– – Religion
– Economy
– – Attractiveness
– – Services and finance
– – Tourism
– Lines of communication and transport
– – Rail transport
– – Truck transport
– – Air transport
– – River transport
– Education
– Culture
– – Entertainment
– – Arts
– – Museums
– – Music
– – Sport
– Media
Local government
– London Assembly
– – Composition
– – Presidency
– – Constituencies
– City of London
– – Institutions
– – – The Wards
– – Heraldry
– – An economic and financial center
Geography
– Metropolitan area
Economy
– London Stock Exchange
– – History
– – – Strategic alliances
– Port of London
Buildings and structures
– The tallest buildings
– – Lists
– – – Skyscrapers
– – – Other structures
– – – Comparison chart
– – – Future buildings
– – Other famous structures
– Tower of London
– – Crown jewels
– – Menagerie
Transport
– Air network
– – Aircraft
– – Gondola lift
– Subways and trams
– – London Underground
– – Docklands Light Railway
– – Tramway (Croydon Tramlink)
– Rail network
– – London Overground
– – Commuter trains
– – Outlines
– – International connections
– – Airports connections
– Road network
– River network
– London Underground
– – The metropolitan network
– – – The lines
– – – Stations
– – Culture
– – – The metro map
– – – The roundel
– – – Contribution to the arts
– Bridges
– – River Crossings
– – – River Thames
– – – River Lea
– – – Subterranean rivers
– – – Canals and Docks
– – Road and foot bridges
– – Railway bridges
Culture
– Annual events
– – Major annual events in London
– Museums
– Public art in the City of London
– – Aldgate
– – Bank
– – Blackfriars
– – Broadgate / Liverpool Street / Bishopsgate
– – Cannon Street
– – Fenchurch Street
– – Fleet Street
– – Holborn
– – Moorgate
– – St Paul’s
– – Temple
– – Tower Hill
Education
– Universities and higher education colleges in London
– – Specialised and private universities and higher education colleges
– – Foreign universities
Tourism
– Get in
– – By plane
– – – Airports
– – By boat
– – By train
– – By bus
– – By car
– Get around
– – By train
– – By metro
– – By tram
– – – Oyster card
– – By bus
– – By taxi
– – By car
– – By bike
– – Walk
– See
– – Religious buildings
– – Parks
– – Museums
– – Royal Parks
– – – Administration
– Tips
– – Learn
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Market towns
– – What to do
– – – Drink
– – – Public events
– – – Bars
– – Concerts
– – – Nightclubs
– – Sleep
– – – Cheap
– – Go next
– – Gentlemen’s clubs
References
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Editura
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/london-business-travel-culture-short-guide/

London: Business, Travel, Culture

How to… Marketing for Small Business

How to... Marketing for Small BusinessWith the exponential growth of the popularity of the Web – the primary instrument using the Internet – an increasingly profitable activity began to be used by a growing number of companies: electronic advertising and marketing, instruments that offer tremendous opportunities at minimal cost .
With more than billion of users worldwide and a big growth rate in the number of users per month, marketing on the Internet is much easier than the traditional methods. Taking into account that a typical marketing campaign causes a response rate of at least 2%, theoretically gives a huge number of answers on the Internet.
What do you expect from Internet Marketing? If you have the patience to deepen understanding of your products and services, and you will design and implement a detailed and valid marketing plan, you can relatively easily to achieve any goal you propose. Perhaps this will not bring immediate material gain, but you will easily notice that you have already created a reputation among clients and competitors, and have been known your offers, at a price much lower than the classic approaches.
In short: you have to give valuable information in an attractive framework… change its content as often as possible … spread them using the many resources offered by the Internet … and use them in such a way as to facilitate client activity… being sure that you are on your way to SUCCESS!

CONTENTS:

Introduction
Marketing or advertising?
– The key to success in online promotion
– Failures and solutions in web design
– – Solutions
– – Content
– – The goal of web marketing
– The e-marketing concept
– – So what is marketing?
– Elements of a successful presence on the Internet
– – Domain names
– – Design
– – Promotion
– – Visitors interest
Market research
– Business Plan
– Audience
– – Visitors
– Size and structure of the market
Consumption research
– Methods for the investigation of the needs
– Investigation of consumer behavior. Regaining lost customers.
Pricing Policy in Online Businesses
– Web design
– Attracting customers
– The shift from marketing to sales
– Merchant account
– Order form
– Online authorization
– Order tracking
– Technical challenges
– Subcontracting
– Conclusions
Short tips on online promotion strategy
Marketing policy
– When should you start?
– Marketing plan
– Guerrilla marketing
– – Link strategy
– – Banner strategy
– – e-Mail strategy
– – Web forums and mailing lists/e-groups
– – – Advertisements
– – – Online contacts
– – Online magazines / Newsletters
– – – 12 advices for a newsletter
– – Contests, prizes and freeware in marketing
– – – Organization of contests
– – – Awards
– – – Freeware
– Viral marketing
– – Where it comes from the power of the system?
– – How does viral marketing work?
– – Planning online business
– – Key Practices:
– – Key resources:
– – Planning elements:
Collecting and analyzing information
– Planning online business
– – Key Practices:
– – Key resources:
– – Planning elements:
Network marketing
Affiliate programs
– Choosing an affiliate program
– Setting up an affiliate program
– – Method #1
– – Method #2
– – Method #3
Online advertising
– Establish a clear goal
– Define the advert
– Site optimization
– Use the interactive capabilities of the Internet
– Copywriting
– – 1. Gathering information about the product
– – 2. Identify the essential characteristics of the product
– – 3. Identify the target audience
– – 4. Establish objectives of your message
– – 5. Identify the format of the message
– – 6. Develop the message
– Direct marketing techniques
– Increase the exposure
– Marketing brochures and flyers
– – Advice #1: Look – and only then try to see
– – Advice #2: Extreme simplicity
– – Advice #3: Bars and boxes
– – Advice #4: Do not forget the “nothing”
– – Advice #5: Less is more
– – Advice #6: Proportions
– – Advice #7: Adequacy
– – Advice #8: Color
– – Advice #9: Paper
– – Advice #10: Details
– Using the business card as a marketing tool
– Increasing sales through catalogs
– Television versus Internet in advertising
– – Similarities:
– – Differences
The marketing myths
– Myth #1: You can advertise for tens of millions people on the Internet
– Myth #2: If you currently do not act on Internet, you will lose a big chance
– Myth #3: You cannot advertise on the Internet
– Myth #4: If you try to advertise on the Internet, you will be burned alive
– Myth #5: You can make lots of money quickly on the Internet
– Myth #6: No one makes any money on the Internet
– Myth #7: Nobody can find you on the Internet. (Alternative: You can not find anything on the Internet)
Finally,

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/marketing-small-business/

How to… Marketing for Small Business

Beginner’s Guide for Cybercrime Investigators

Beginner's Guide for Cybercrime InvestigatorsIn the real world there are people who enter the homes and steal everything they find valuable. In the virtual world there are individuals who penetrate computer systems and “steal” all your valuable data. Just as in the real world, there are uninvited guests and people feel happy when they steal or destroy someone else’s property, the computer world could not be deprived of this unfortunate phenomenon. It is truly detestable the perfidy of these attacks. For if it can be observed immediately the apparent lack of box jewelry, penetration of an accounting server can be detected after a few months when all clients have given up the company services because of the stolen data came to competition and have helped it to make best deals.
Cybercrime is a phenomenon of our time, often reflected in the media. Forensic investigation of computer systems has a number of features that differentiate it fundamentally from other types of investigations. The computer itself is the main source of information for the investigator.

CONTENTS:

Computing systems and storage media
– Computing devices
– – Peripheral devices
– – External drives for media storage
– Typology of data stored on specific supports – File systems
– – Program that allows working with ” inactive” space
– Information that can be obtained from the computing system environment
Computer networks
– Copper wire in computer networks
– Optical fibers
– Wireless LAN
– Internet and Intranet
Software and services
– Client/server architecture
– Protocols and Standards
– Internet Services
– – e-Mail
– – – Spam
– – HTTP
– – Web address – URL
– – Web browsers
– – – Browser cookies
– – Working with web pages
– – – Choosing your favorite web pages
– – – Keeping track of visited web pages
– – – Saving web pages
– – Proxy servers
– – Privacy on the Internet
– FTP
– Instant Messaging
– Peer-to-peer networks
Vulnerabilities
– The first attacks on the Internet
– Cybercrime
– – Typologies of cyber attackers
– – – Classification of cyber attackers according to their skills and objectives
– Classification of risks and incidents in cyberworld
– – Classification as a list of terms
– – List of categories
– – Categories of results
– – Empirical lists
– Events, attacks and incidents
– Online security events, actions, and targets
– – Actions
– – Targets
– Attacks
– – Tools
– – Vulnerabilities
– – Unauthorized results
Cybercrime laws
– The concept of “cybercrime”
Investigations
– Computer forensic investigations
– Digital evidence
– Digital sampling during investigations
– The suspect
– Witnesses in cybercrime
– Transporting of samples in laboratory
– Analysis of samples
– Preparing team members
– Computer tools
Convention on Cybercrime
– Preamble
– Chapter I – Use of terms
– Chapter II – Measures to be taken at the national level
– – Section 1 – Substantive criminal law
– – – Title 1 – Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems
– – – Title 2 – Computer-related offences
– – – Title 3 – Content-related offences
– – – Title 4 – Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights
– – – Title 5 – Ancillary liability and sanctions
– – Section 2 – Procedural law
– – – Title 1 – Common provisions
– – – Title 2 – Expedited preservation of stored computer data
– – – Title 3 – Production order
– – – Title 4 – Search and seizure of stored computer data
– – – Title 5 – Real-time collection of computer data
– – Section 3 – Jurisdiction
– Chapter III – International co-operation
– – Section 1 – General principles
– – – Title 1 – General principles relating to international co-operation
– – – Title 2 – Principles relating to extradition
– – – Title 3 – General principles relating to mutual assistance
– – – Title 4 – Procedures pertaining to mutual assistance requests in the absence of applicable international agreements
– – Section 2 – Specific provisions
– – – Title 1 – Mutual assistance regarding provisional measures
– – – Title 2 – Mutual assistance regarding investigative powers
– – – Title 3 – 24/7 Network
– Chapter IV – Final provisions
Recommendation No. R (95) 13
– Appendix to Recommendation No. R (95) 13
– – I. Search and seizure
– – II. Technical surveillance
– – III. Obligations to co-operate with the investigating authorities
– – IV. Electronic evidence
– – V. Use of encryption
– – VI. Research, statistics and training
– – VII. International co-operation
Rules for obtaining digital evidence by police officers
Standards in the field of digital forensics
Principles in digital evidence
Procedures model for the forensic examination
– Hard disk examination
Code of Ethics
Sources and references
About
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/beginners-guide-cybercrime-investigators/

Beginner’s Guide for Cybercrime Investigators