Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies

Epistemology of Intelligence AgenciesAbout the analogy between the epistemological and methodological aspects of the activity of intelligence agencies and some scientific disciplines, advocating for a more scientific approach to the process of collecting and analyzing information within the intelligence cycle. I assert that the theoretical, ontological and epistemological aspects of the activity of many intelligence agencies are underestimated, leading to incomplete understanding of current phenomena and confusion in inter-institutional collaboration. After a brief Introduction, which includes a history of the evolution of the intelligence concept after World War II, Intelligence Activity defines the objectives and organization of intelligence agencies, the core model of these organizations (the intelligence cycle), and the relevant aspects of the intelligence gathering and intelligence analysis. In the Ontology section, I highlight the ontological aspects and the entities that threaten and are threatened. The Epistemology section includes aspects specific to intelligence activity, with the analysis of the traditional (Singer) model, and a possible epistemological approach through the concept of tacit knowledge developed by scientist Michael Polanyi. In the Methodology section there are various methodological theories with an emphasis on structural analytical techniques, and some analogies with science, archeology, business and medicine. In Conclusions I argue on the possibility of a more scientific approach to methods of intelligence gathering and analysis of intelligence agencies.

CONTENTS:

Abstract
1 Introduction
1.1. History
2. Intelligence activity
2.1. Organizations
2.2. Intelligence cycle
2.3 Intelligence gathering
2.4. Intelligence analysis
2.5. Counterintelligence
2.6. Epistemic communities
3. Ontology
4. Epistemology
4.1. The tacit knowledge (Polanyi)
5. Methodologies
6. Analogies with other disciplines
6.1. Science
6.2. Archeology
6.3. Business
6.4. Medicine
7. Conclusions
Bibliography

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.12971.49445

07.04.2019

MultiMedia Publishing https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/epistemology-of-intelligence-agencies/

Epistemology of Intelligence Agencies

London: Business, Travel, Culture

London: Business, Travel, CultureLondon, the only city to have hosted the Olympics three times (1908, 1948, 2012), is dynamic and very diverse culturally. It plays an important role in art and fashion. It receives 28 million tourists per year and has four sites in World heritage and numerous iconic landmarks: the Palace of Westminster, Tower Bridge, Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, and renowned institutions like the British Museum or the National Gallery.

CONTENTS:

London
– Geography
– – Definition of London
– – Relief and hydrography
– – Districts
– – Urbanization
– – Climate
– History
– – London in Roman times
– – The Anglo-Saxon occupation
– – Medieval London
– – The modern times
– – The contemporary era
– Policy and Administration
– – Local administration
– – Postcodes in London
– – National administration
– – Twinning
– Demography
– – Population
– – Demographic evolution
– – Ethnic diversity
– – Residents born abroad
– – Religion
– Economy
– – Attractiveness
– – Services and finance
– – Tourism
– Lines of communication and transport
– – Rail transport
– – Truck transport
– – Air transport
– – River transport
– Education
– Culture
– – Entertainment
– – Arts
– – Museums
– – Music
– – Sport
– Media
Local government
– London Assembly
– – Composition
– – Presidency
– – Constituencies
– City of London
– – Institutions
– – – The Wards
– – Heraldry
– – An economic and financial center
Geography
– Metropolitan area
Economy
– London Stock Exchange
– – History
– – – Strategic alliances
– Port of London
Buildings and structures
– The tallest buildings
– – Lists
– – – Skyscrapers
– – – Other structures
– – – Comparison chart
– – – Future buildings
– – Other famous structures
– Tower of London
– – Crown jewels
– – Menagerie
Transport
– Air network
– – Aircraft
– – Gondola lift
– Subways and trams
– – London Underground
– – Docklands Light Railway
– – Tramway (Croydon Tramlink)
– Rail network
– – London Overground
– – Commuter trains
– – Outlines
– – International connections
– – Airports connections
– Road network
– River network
– London Underground
– – The metropolitan network
– – – The lines
– – – Stations
– – Culture
– – – The metro map
– – – The roundel
– – – Contribution to the arts
– Bridges
– – River Crossings
– – – River Thames
– – – River Lea
– – – Subterranean rivers
– – – Canals and Docks
– – Road and foot bridges
– – Railway bridges
Culture
– Annual events
– – Major annual events in London
– Museums
– Public art in the City of London
– – Aldgate
– – Bank
– – Blackfriars
– – Broadgate / Liverpool Street / Bishopsgate
– – Cannon Street
– – Fenchurch Street
– – Fleet Street
– – Holborn
– – Moorgate
– – St Paul’s
– – Temple
– – Tower Hill
Education
– Universities and higher education colleges in London
– – Specialised and private universities and higher education colleges
– – Foreign universities
Tourism
– Get in
– – By plane
– – – Airports
– – By boat
– – By train
– – By bus
– – By car
– Get around
– – By train
– – By metro
– – By tram
– – – Oyster card
– – By bus
– – By taxi
– – By car
– – By bike
– – Walk
– See
– – Religious buildings
– – Parks
– – Museums
– – Royal Parks
– – – Administration
– Tips
– – Learn
– – Buy
– – Eat
– – Market towns
– – What to do
– – – Drink
– – – Public events
– – – Bars
– – Concerts
– – – Nightclubs
– – Sleep
– – – Cheap
– – Go next
– – Gentlemen’s clubs
References
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Editura
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/london-business-travel-culture-short-guide/

London: Business, Travel, Culture

How to… Marketing for Small Business

How to... Marketing for Small BusinessWith the exponential growth of the popularity of the Web – the primary instrument using the Internet – an increasingly profitable activity began to be used by a growing number of companies: electronic advertising and marketing, instruments that offer tremendous opportunities at minimal cost .
With more than billion of users worldwide and a big growth rate in the number of users per month, marketing on the Internet is much easier than the traditional methods. Taking into account that a typical marketing campaign causes a response rate of at least 2%, theoretically gives a huge number of answers on the Internet.
What do you expect from Internet Marketing? If you have the patience to deepen understanding of your products and services, and you will design and implement a detailed and valid marketing plan, you can relatively easily to achieve any goal you propose. Perhaps this will not bring immediate material gain, but you will easily notice that you have already created a reputation among clients and competitors, and have been known your offers, at a price much lower than the classic approaches.
In short: you have to give valuable information in an attractive framework… change its content as often as possible … spread them using the many resources offered by the Internet … and use them in such a way as to facilitate client activity… being sure that you are on your way to SUCCESS!

CONTENTS:

Introduction
Marketing or advertising?
– The key to success in online promotion
– Failures and solutions in web design
– – Solutions
– – Content
– – The goal of web marketing
– The e-marketing concept
– – So what is marketing?
– Elements of a successful presence on the Internet
– – Domain names
– – Design
– – Promotion
– – Visitors interest
Market research
– Business Plan
– Audience
– – Visitors
– Size and structure of the market
Consumption research
– Methods for the investigation of the needs
– Investigation of consumer behavior. Regaining lost customers.
Pricing Policy in Online Businesses
– Web design
– Attracting customers
– The shift from marketing to sales
– Merchant account
– Order form
– Online authorization
– Order tracking
– Technical challenges
– Subcontracting
– Conclusions
Short tips on online promotion strategy
Marketing policy
– When should you start?
– Marketing plan
– Guerrilla marketing
– – Link strategy
– – Banner strategy
– – e-Mail strategy
– – Web forums and mailing lists/e-groups
– – – Advertisements
– – – Online contacts
– – Online magazines / Newsletters
– – – 12 advices for a newsletter
– – Contests, prizes and freeware in marketing
– – – Organization of contests
– – – Awards
– – – Freeware
– Viral marketing
– – Where it comes from the power of the system?
– – How does viral marketing work?
– – Planning online business
– – Key Practices:
– – Key resources:
– – Planning elements:
Collecting and analyzing information
– Planning online business
– – Key Practices:
– – Key resources:
– – Planning elements:
Network marketing
Affiliate programs
– Choosing an affiliate program
– Setting up an affiliate program
– – Method #1
– – Method #2
– – Method #3
Online advertising
– Establish a clear goal
– Define the advert
– Site optimization
– Use the interactive capabilities of the Internet
– Copywriting
– – 1. Gathering information about the product
– – 2. Identify the essential characteristics of the product
– – 3. Identify the target audience
– – 4. Establish objectives of your message
– – 5. Identify the format of the message
– – 6. Develop the message
– Direct marketing techniques
– Increase the exposure
– Marketing brochures and flyers
– – Advice #1: Look – and only then try to see
– – Advice #2: Extreme simplicity
– – Advice #3: Bars and boxes
– – Advice #4: Do not forget the “nothing”
– – Advice #5: Less is more
– – Advice #6: Proportions
– – Advice #7: Adequacy
– – Advice #8: Color
– – Advice #9: Paper
– – Advice #10: Details
– Using the business card as a marketing tool
– Increasing sales through catalogs
– Television versus Internet in advertising
– – Similarities:
– – Differences
The marketing myths
– Myth #1: You can advertise for tens of millions people on the Internet
– Myth #2: If you currently do not act on Internet, you will lose a big chance
– Myth #3: You cannot advertise on the Internet
– Myth #4: If you try to advertise on the Internet, you will be burned alive
– Myth #5: You can make lots of money quickly on the Internet
– Myth #6: No one makes any money on the Internet
– Myth #7: Nobody can find you on the Internet. (Alternative: You can not find anything on the Internet)
Finally,

MultiMedia Publishing House https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/marketing-small-business/

How to… Marketing for Small Business

Beginner’s Guide for Cybercrime Investigators

Beginner's Guide for Cybercrime InvestigatorsIn the real world there are people who enter the homes and steal everything they find valuable. In the virtual world there are individuals who penetrate computer systems and “steal” all your valuable data. Just as in the real world, there are uninvited guests and people feel happy when they steal or destroy someone else’s property, the computer world could not be deprived of this unfortunate phenomenon. It is truly detestable the perfidy of these attacks. For if it can be observed immediately the apparent lack of box jewelry, penetration of an accounting server can be detected after a few months when all clients have given up the company services because of the stolen data came to competition and have helped it to make best deals.
Cybercrime is a phenomenon of our time, often reflected in the media. Forensic investigation of computer systems has a number of features that differentiate it fundamentally from other types of investigations. The computer itself is the main source of information for the investigator.

CONTENTS:

Computing systems and storage media
– Computing devices
– – Peripheral devices
– – External drives for media storage
– Typology of data stored on specific supports – File systems
– – Program that allows working with ” inactive” space
– Information that can be obtained from the computing system environment
Computer networks
– Copper wire in computer networks
– Optical fibers
– Wireless LAN
– Internet and Intranet
Software and services
– Client/server architecture
– Protocols and Standards
– Internet Services
– – e-Mail
– – – Spam
– – HTTP
– – Web address – URL
– – Web browsers
– – – Browser cookies
– – Working with web pages
– – – Choosing your favorite web pages
– – – Keeping track of visited web pages
– – – Saving web pages
– – Proxy servers
– – Privacy on the Internet
– FTP
– Instant Messaging
– Peer-to-peer networks
Vulnerabilities
– The first attacks on the Internet
– Cybercrime
– – Typologies of cyber attackers
– – – Classification of cyber attackers according to their skills and objectives
– Classification of risks and incidents in cyberworld
– – Classification as a list of terms
– – List of categories
– – Categories of results
– – Empirical lists
– Events, attacks and incidents
– Online security events, actions, and targets
– – Actions
– – Targets
– Attacks
– – Tools
– – Vulnerabilities
– – Unauthorized results
Cybercrime laws
– The concept of “cybercrime”
Investigations
– Computer forensic investigations
– Digital evidence
– Digital sampling during investigations
– The suspect
– Witnesses in cybercrime
– Transporting of samples in laboratory
– Analysis of samples
– Preparing team members
– Computer tools
Convention on Cybercrime
– Preamble
– Chapter I – Use of terms
– Chapter II – Measures to be taken at the national level
– – Section 1 – Substantive criminal law
– – – Title 1 – Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems
– – – Title 2 – Computer-related offences
– – – Title 3 – Content-related offences
– – – Title 4 – Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights
– – – Title 5 – Ancillary liability and sanctions
– – Section 2 – Procedural law
– – – Title 1 – Common provisions
– – – Title 2 – Expedited preservation of stored computer data
– – – Title 3 – Production order
– – – Title 4 – Search and seizure of stored computer data
– – – Title 5 – Real-time collection of computer data
– – Section 3 – Jurisdiction
– Chapter III – International co-operation
– – Section 1 – General principles
– – – Title 1 – General principles relating to international co-operation
– – – Title 2 – Principles relating to extradition
– – – Title 3 – General principles relating to mutual assistance
– – – Title 4 – Procedures pertaining to mutual assistance requests in the absence of applicable international agreements
– – Section 2 – Specific provisions
– – – Title 1 – Mutual assistance regarding provisional measures
– – – Title 2 – Mutual assistance regarding investigative powers
– – – Title 3 – 24/7 Network
– Chapter IV – Final provisions
Recommendation No. R (95) 13
– Appendix to Recommendation No. R (95) 13
– – I. Search and seizure
– – II. Technical surveillance
– – III. Obligations to co-operate with the investigating authorities
– – IV. Electronic evidence
– – V. Use of encryption
– – VI. Research, statistics and training
– – VII. International co-operation
Rules for obtaining digital evidence by police officers
Standards in the field of digital forensics
Principles in digital evidence
Procedures model for the forensic examination
– Hard disk examination
Code of Ethics
Sources and references
About
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/beginners-guide-cybercrime-investigators/

Beginner’s Guide for Cybercrime Investigators

Short WordPress Guide for Beginners

Short WordPress Guide for BeginnersWordPress is a publishing software whose main qualities are simplicity, speed and ease of use. WordPress is favored by an active community, real core of free software.

WordPress is a powerful personal publishing platform with many features designed to make publishing your Internet experience as simple, pleasant and enjoyable as possible. It offers a freely distributable publishing platform, standards compliant, fast, light and free with parameters and features and a thoughtful extraordinarily adaptable core.WordPress is a blogging software that has all the usual features of this type of software. It allows multiple authors to publish posts, which are ordered by date and by category. Multiple categories can be assigned to a given post.
WordPress is popular mainly with users around free software and with knowledge of software programming. The public interface is customizable through templates files, and plugins can be developed. The WordPress community is very active and has a growing number of resources such as ready-made themes, documentation and translation software.

CONTENTS:

About WordPress
– WordPress features
– – WordPress themes
– License and Technical Environment
– WordPress.com
– WordPress Features
– – Technical License and Environment
– – Managing and administering the weblog
WordPress installation
– Before installing WordPress…
– – Do you have the necessary tools?
– How to start working
– – Read
– – Make a plan
– – Install WordPress
– – Hosting
– Web hosting
– New or existing database
– Installing WordPress
– – What to know before you start
– – Installation in 5 minutes
– – Detailed instructions
– Install WordPress Themes
– – A WordPress theme, what is it?
– – Free or paid WordPress theme?
– – Installing a free WordPress theme
– – – Search criteria
– – – Theme Preview
– – – Installation
– – Install a paid WordPress theme
– – – Install by the administration interface
– – – Install using FTP
– – – Activate the theme
– Install the favicon
– – How to create a favicon
– – Install the favicon on a WordPress blog
– Updating WordPress
– – Check prerequisites system
– – Make a backup
– – Disable extensions
– – Ready to make the update!
– – Automatic update
– – Manual update
– – – Replace WordPress files
– – – Install your update
– – – Take a break!
– – Final phase
– – Troubleshooting
– Moving WordPress to a new location
– – Save your data
– – – Recovering the WordPress files
– – – Collect WordPress data
– – Transferring data
– – Small adjustments
– – – Changed database
– – – Domain not changed
– – – Changed domain
Working with WordPress
– Getting Started with WordPress
– – What next?
– WordPress content
– – Posts
– – Pages
– Working with WordPress
– – Publish your posts
– – Archives and Research
– – Discussion and comments
– – Creating and Managing a Blogroll
– – Publish your work
– – Customizable design
– Screen Options
– – Excerpt
– – Send Trackbacks
– – Custom Fields
– – Slug
– – Discussion
– – Comments
– – Author
– Installing Plugins
– – Information to know before installing
– Post formats
– Use of custom fields
– – Use
References
About the author
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– By the same author
– Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House Edition: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/short-wordpress-guide-for-beginners/

Bridge Bidding – Standard American Yellow Card

Bridge Bidding - Standard American Yellow CardThis book present some of the most important bridge bidding systems used in duplicate bridge tournaments, detailing the most known bridge bidding system, Standard American Yellow Card, by using a logical sequential order for openings, answers, competitive bids and defensive play in order to help the players during the games.

Much of the complexity in bridge arises from the difficulty of arriving at a good final contract in the auction.

A bidding system in contract bridge is the set of agreements and understandings assigned to calls and sequences of calls used by a partnership, and includes a full description of the meaning of each treatment and convention.

Standard American Yellow Card is a specific set of partnership agreements and conventions, using Standard American as a base. Standard American Yellow Card is a very specific collection of agreements, which can, of course, be modified and augmented by partnership agreement. In practical use, the term is often mis-used to refer to Standard American in general, or it could refer to a system that used SAYC as a base and made additional augmentations or changes to the base agreements.

CONTENTS:

Contract Bridge
– Game play
– – Dealing
– – Auction or bidding
– – Play of the hand
– – Scoring
– Laws of contract bridge
– – Laws of duplicate bridge
– – Laws of rubber bridge
– History
– Tournaments
– – Bidding boxes and bidding screens
– Game strategy
– – Bidding
– – – Bidding systems and conventions
– – – Basic natural systems
– – – Variations on the basic themes
– – – Advanced bidding techniques
– – Play techniques
– – Techniques by declarer
– – Advanced techniques by declarer
– – Techniques by defenders
– Example
– Playing on the Internet
– Computer bridge
Bidding Systems
– Classification
– – Natural systems
– – – Specific systems
– – Artificial systems
– 2/1 game forcing
– – Normal 2/1 game forcing auctions
– – Exceptions to 2/1 game force
– – 1NT response forcing or semi-forcing for one round
– – Other 2/1 features
– – Example sequences
– Acol
– – Bidding system structure
– – Variants
– – Standard Acol
– – – Opening bids
– – – Responses to 1 of a suit
– – – Responses to 1 NT
– – – Responses to 2 NT
– – – Responses to 2 clubs
– – – Responses to 2 of a suit
– – – Opener’s suit rebid after one-level opening
– – – Opener’s NT rebid after one-level opening
– – – Fourth suit forcing
– Blue Club
– – Advantages
– – Disadvantages
– Boring Club
– – The 1 club opening
– – The 1NT opening
– Bridge Base Basic
– – Key points of BBO Basic Bidding
– – Opener approximate hand strengths
– – Responder approximate hand strengths
– – – Responding with a minimum hand
– – – Responding with a medium hand
– – – Responding with a maximum hand
– – – Responding with Balanced Hands
– – Opener’s response to partners search for a fit
– EHAA
– – The EHAA two-bid
– – The Mini Notrump
– – Other Opening Bids
– – Defensive Bidding
– – Other Preempts
– Fantunes
– Little Major
– OK bridge 2/1
– – 5-card majors
– – The “two over one” game force
– – Walsh
– – Forcing One No-trump
– – New Minor Forcing
– Polish Club
– – 1 club opening
– – – 1 diamond response
– – – 1 heart/spade responses
– – – 1NT response
– – – 2 clubs/diamonds responses
– – – 2 hearts/spades responses
– – – 2NT response
– – – 3 clubs/diamonds response
– – – 3 hearts/spades responses
– – 1 diamond opening
– – 1heart/spade openings
– – 1NT opening
– – 2 clubs Opening
– – 2 diamonds opening
– – 2 hearts/spades openings
– – 2NT opening
– – 3NT opening
– – Conventions in an uncontested auction
– – – Jump shift
– – – Fourth suit
– – – Third suit
– – – Forcing 2NT
– – – Odwrotka
– – – 2 clubs – check back
– – – En passant
– – Slam bidding
– – – Roman Key Card Blackwood 1430
– – – Exclusion Key Card Blackwood (1430 responses)
– – – Hoyt
– – – 5NT
– – – Cue bids
– – – Splinter bids
– – – AutoSplinter
– – – Six in the Splinter suit
– – – Interference after Blackwood
– – Competitive bidding
– – – Over opponent’s takeout double
– – – Over opponent’s overcall
– – – Support bidding after Partner’s 1 heart/spade opening is overcalled
– – – After Partner’s 1NT opening is overcalled
– – – After Partner’s 2 diamonds/hearts/spades opening is overcalled
– – – Negative double
– – – When the second defender overcalls
– – Defensive bidding
– – – No−trump hands
– – – After 2 diamonds artificial opening (Multi or Wilkosz)
– – – Direct cue bid
– – – Jump cue bid
– – – Versus strong 1 NT opening
– – – Versus weak 1NT opening
– – – Other
– – Leads and signals
– Precision Club
– – Main opening sequences
– – Precision today
– Roman Club
– – Overview
– – – Opening bids
– – – Other features
– Romex System
– – Dynamic one notrump
– – Mexican two diamonds
– – Other calls
– Saffle Spade
– Strong Club System
– – Explanation
– – Strengths
– – Sub-Types
– – History
Standard American
– Role of bidding systems
– History
Standard American Yellow Card (SAYC)
– Openings
– – 1 Club opening: Responses
– – 1 Diamond opening: Responses
– – 1 Heart/Spade opening: Responses and later bidding
– – – Opener’s rebids are natural and standard
– – – Subsequent bidding by responder
– – 1NT opening: Responses and later bidding
– – – Interference after a 1NT opening bid
– – 2 Clubs opening: Responses and later bidding
– – 2 Diamonds/Hearts/Spades opening
– – 2NT opening: Responses
– – 3 Hearts/Spades or 4 Clubs/Diamonds opening preempts
– – 3NT opening: Responses
– – 4NT opening: Responses
– Jump to 5NT
– Competitive bidding
– Defensive bidding
– – Defensive leads and signals
Reference
About
– Nicolae Sfetcu
– – By the same author
– – Contact
Publishing House
– MultiMedia Publishing

MultiMedia Publishing House: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/bridge-bidding-standard-american-yellow-card/
– Digital: EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-104-9), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-106-3), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-105-6)
Publication Date: April 17, 2014